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The
Minnesota
Archaeologist
Vol. 48, No. 1-2                                1989

ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE
CENTRAL MINNEAPOLIS RIVERFRONT

PART 1: HISTORICAL OVERVIEW AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL POTENTIALS

Scott F. Anfinson
Minnesota Historical Society

© 1989 Minnesota Archaeological Society



TABLE OF CONTENTS


Preface
Table of Contents
Introduction
Sources
Historical Background
Archaeological Site Inventory

- Bassett's Creek
- Gateway
- West Side Mill District
- Gasworks Bluff
- Brewery Flats
- Milwaukee Road
- Boom Island
- Hennepin-Central
- Nicollet Island
- East Side Mill District
- Interbank

Historical Figures and Photographs  (big thumbnails)   (medium)   (small)
References Cited
Chronology Chart


Archaeological Site Inventory
West Side Mill District

Extending from 3rd Avenue South to just below 10th Avenue South (Figure 18), the West Side Mill District at one time featured an assemblage of mills and support industries that made it one of the densest concentrations of industry in the world. The government sawmill and grist mill built in the early 1820s were the first industries to tap the great waterpower potential of the Falls of St. Anthony.

Expansion of waterpower use next occurred on the east side as the west was part of the Fort Snelling Military Reservation until 1852. Once private interests acquired the land on the west side of the Falls, development was rapid. Following the construction of the first segment of the 1st Street canal in 1857, platform sawmills were built over the Falls and large stone flour mills began to line 1st Street.

By the mid-1880s, 25 flour mills, a woolen mill, a sawmill, and the city waterworks lined an extended canal (Figure 19). The mills were surrounded by machine shops, cooper shops, and other milling support industries. Railroad tracks were interspersed among the buildings paralleling the canal.

By 1890 the platform sawmills were gone and hydroelectricity was the up and coming industry at the Falls. The flour mills continued to dominate the district until the 1930s Depression when a number of them were torn down and Minneapolis lost the lead in flour production.

In 1960 the west side canal was filled-in during the construction of the Upper Lock and Dam and many of the mill ruins were soon covered with gravel. Flour production on the west side ceased in 1965 with the closing of the Washburn A Mill.

Today, only four flour mills still stand in the district; the Washburn A, the Crown, the Humboldt, and the Standard. Several large elevators still dominate the riverfront skylines at the south end of the district, although most are scheduled for demolition.

    WM-1. Elliot Feed Warehouse, 306 S. 1st St. (1905 - 1917/ca.1930)

H.L. Elliot and Co. built a two-story, brick warehouse into the retaining wall east of the intersection of 3rd Avenue and 1st Street S. in 1905. It was used primarily to store hay. The upper story (street level) was torn down in 1917 for the construction of the 3rd Avenue bridge. The lower portion remained vacant until the 1930s when it was torn down.

Most of the site has been destroyed by expansion of railroad tracks and retaining wall construction, but some foundations may remain near the street intersection.

References: Sanborn (1912, 1912/28), Rascher (1892/06).

    WM-2. Occidental Mill, 400-404 S. 1st St. (1883-1920)

Built in 1883 by McAlister, Chase, and Co., this was the northernmost hydropowered mill on the west side (Figure 20). It was driven by a line shaft from the Bassett Sawmill turbines. The mill was of brick, two stories high with an elevator and office on the north end. The mill burned on November 14, 1919 and the upper walls were torn down in 1920.

The foundation walls are visible just north of the former Fuji-Ya Restaurant. An asphalt parking lot covers most of the site.

References: Sanborn (1885, 1885/90, 1912, 1912/23); Morrison (1885:49); Rascher (1892:366); NW Miller (2/1/84, 9/21/94, 11/19/19, 12/24/19).

    WM-3. Columbia Mill, 406-416 S. 1st St. (1882-1941)

Built in 1882 by the Columbia Mill Company of which J.B. Bassett was president, this waterpowered mill was five stories high and built of brick. An elevator was built into the north end and a brick boiler house added on the south end in 1889.

It was purchased by Northwestern Consolidated Milling in 1891 becoming their B mill, but it was also known as the Ceresota Mill. The entire building was converted to an elevator known as the Harbor Elevator in the 1930s. In early 1941, the floors collapsed and the upper stories were torn down soon after. The foundations were incorporated into Fuji-Ya Restaurant's addition in 1974.

The part of the foundation not incorporated into the restaurant is well preserved beneath a small parking lot to the north. The ruins can be viewed from the river side.

References: Sanborn (1885, 1885/90, 1912/23, 1912/48); Rascher (1892:366); Atwater (1893:627); Shutter (1923:367); Morrison (1885:48); Minneapolis Star Journal (1/7/41); NW Miller (9/16/81, 9/23/81, 10/6/82, 11/10/82, 12/1/82, 1/5/83, 1/8/41).

    WM-4. Bassett Sawmill, 418-430 S. 1st St. (1870-1897)

Originally the site of several small woodworking shops, the Bassett Sawmill was built in 1870 to replace the nearby building that J.B. Bassett sold to the city as a waterworks. The new sawmill had a stone foundation and a two-story frame upper portion. The mill's turbines not only powered the sawmill, but the adjacent Columbia and Occidental mills as well. It was the only water-powered sawmill left on the west side when it burned in 1897. The turbines continued to power the Columbia Mill until 1941. Steam power plants were built into the north end of the building in 1889 and 1891.

The engine house of the building survived the 1897 fire. It had various tenants over the next seventy years and eventually became part of the Fuji-Ya Restaurant in 1968. City utility work just south of the restaurant in 1976 encountered the partially-filled wheel rooms with gears still in place. They were examined and photographed by Douglas Birk of the Minnesota Historical Society. Archaeological test excavations in 1985 located foundations 2.8 feet below the Fuji-Ya parking lot. Additional archaeological testing was undertaken at the site in 1986. The south end of the site is now under the newly constructed West River Parkway.

References: Atwater (1893:539, 543-544, 647), Warner et al. (1881:402); Stevens (1890:344); Morrison (1885:49), Shutter (1923:332); Mississippi Valley Lumberman (8/1/86, 2/1/95); NW Miller (11/20/85, 12/12/90, 10/30/91, 4/1/92, 2/19/97, 12/24/19); Birk Field Notes (2/10/76); Tordoff (1986); Tordoff and Clouse 1987).

    WM-5. New City Waterworks, 500-502 S. 1st St. (1883-ca.1931)

In 1883 the city built a one-story brick addition on the north side of its hydropowered west side waterworks. The building was trapezoidal in shape with the back wall fronting on the water power canal. The foundations were part of the old Basset sawmill built in 1866. Auxiliary steam power was added in 1886.

The west side waterworks was abandoned by the city in 1904 and the brick addition was purchased by Northwestern Consolidated Milling in 1912 to be used for storage. The building was torn down in the early 1930s.

A portion of the front brick building was still visible in 1985, but this was destroyed by West River Parkway construction in 1986. Archaeological excavation in 1986 confirmed that most of the foundations of the building still remain, although portions were destroyed by the West River Parkway construction.

References: Sanborn (1885, 1885/90, 1912, 1912/27); Rascher (1892, 1892/1906), NW Miller (1/5/83, 2/23/83, 1/1/86, 12/10/86); Mississippi Valley Lumberman (2/1/95); Tordoff and Clouse (1987).

    WM-6. Old City Waterworks, 504-506 S. 1st St. (1866-ca.1931)

In 1866 J.B. Bassett built a two-story stone sawmill on the west side power canal just above the gatehouse. In 1871 the city bought the building for a waterworks and removed the building's top story. The building was designated Pump House No. 1. The locally constructed water pumps were initially hydropowered, but auxiliary steam power was added in 1886 in the brick addition built on the north side in 1883.

The city abandoned the canal waterworks in 1904 upon completion of its Columbia Heights plant. The building was torn down in the early 1930s. Archaeological excavations in 1986 confirmed that most of the foundations still remain, although upper portions were destroyed by the West River Parkway construction.

References: Fuller (1873); Sanborn (1885, 1885/90. 1912, 1912/23); Racher (1892/1906); Bromley (1890:160-161); Atwater (1893; 542, 544, 805-806); Hudson (1907:482); Shutter (1923:159-160, 332); Andreas (1874:228); Stone (1878:43-44); Kane (1987:124); Minneapolis Board of Trade, Reports (1877:27); Minneapolis City Council Proceedings (3/15/1871, 12/31/1872).

    WM-7. West Side Power Canal, Gatehouse, and Tailraces, From S. 2nd St. to Mississippi River; from 5th Ave. to 8th Ave. (1857-1961)

In 1857 the Minneapolis Mill Company built a canal along 1st Street S. to improve the water power potentials of the west side. The original canal went only to 6th Avenue, but it was extended 600 feet in 1865. In 1885 it was widened, deepened, and slightly lengthened (Figure 21). The canal was covered with thick, wooden planks so street traffic could move over the canal.

Water flow was controlled by a set of gates between 5th and 6th Avenues. A wooden gatehouse held the gate controls. The gates and gatehouse were also rebuilt in 1885, the gates of granite and the gatehouse of brick.

Head gates at each mill along the canal let water into the mills and the water then dropped down vertical shafts within which the turbines were set. The water entered tailraces which brought it back to the river below the Falls. The tailrace outlets were rebuilt from 1887 to 1892. The canal was cut into hard limestone, but the tailraces were in soft sandstone and had to be lined with brick or stone to prevent erosion.

The canal entrance was closed off in 1960 in conjunction with the construction of the Upper Lock and Dam. The canal was then filled-in, the gate house torn down, and the tailrace outlets covered over.

Archaeological exploration in 1986 confirmed that the canal, gates, and tailraces remain in relatively good condition. A concrete bridge built over the canal at 6th Avenue in 1934 was removed in 1986 during the West River Parkway construction.

References: Kane (1960, 1987:53-54, 199, 120, 176); Atwater (1893:344, 534, 614); Warner et al. (1881:391); Fuller(1873); Stone (1878:53-54); NW Miller (9/5/79, 10/31/79, 1/9/85, 6/12/85, 7/3/85, 7/24/85, 9/25/85, 1/1/86, 1/7/87, 7/1/87, 6/17/90, 6/13/90, 2/28,90, 10/6/91, 1/8/92); Tordoff and Clouse (1987).

    WM-8. Peoples Mill, 512-514 S. 1st St. (1867-1879)

In 1867 G.F. Walker and Thomas Noble built a small flour mill on the east side of the canal near its head. The mill was of wood and two stories high. It was the shortest-lived of the canal mills being torn down in the late 1870s, probably in conjunction with the construction of the Minneapolis Eastern Railroad trestle. Some of the southernmost foundations of the building may survive.

References: City Directory (1867, 1869, 1871-72); Kane (1987:216 n.10); Fuller (1873); Kuhlman (1929:112, 126); Warner et al. (1881:653); NW Miller (Holiday Issue 1890:32, 3/5/19).

    WM-9. Arctic/St. Anthony Mill, 516-520 S. 1st St. (1866-1919)

In 1866 Perkins, Crocker, and Co. built the Arctic Mill on the east side of the canal. It was four stories and built of limestone (Figure 22). A fifth story of brick was added later. After going through a series of owners, Hineline, Plenk and Wheeler bought it in 1879 and renamed it the St. Anthony Mill. Northwestern Consolidated Milling took it over in the later 1890s and it became that company's H mill. It appears to have been torn down in 1919, but its turbines were used by NSP to generate electricity as Consolidated Hydro Plant Unit 1.

The mills foundations are well preserved and are still visible north of Portland Avenue near the West River Parkway. Archaeological testing in 1989 examined the south wall of the mill

References: Atwater (1893:586-587,611); Warner et al. (1881:396); Morrison (1885:103); NW Miller's Almanac (1912); Minneapolis Board of Trade, Annual Report (1876:39); NW Miller (10/15/82, 6/28/16, 8/4/17, 6/4/19); Szondy and Clouse (1990).

    WM-10. Union Mill, 522-524 S. 1st St. (1863-ca. 1919/29)

Built by Henry Gibson in 1863, the Union Mill was the second privately constructed flour mill on the west side. It was a four-story stone structure (Figure 22). It quit operating by 1892 and was used for storage by the Northwestern Consolidated Milling Company. It was partially torn down in 1919. The remaining portion was remodeled in the mid-1920s as a warehouse, but was torn down shortly thereafter.

The mill's foundations are well preserved and visible just east of the West River Parkway north of Portland Avenue. Archaeological testing in 1989 examined the interior walls.

References: Atwater (1893:584,611,618), Warren et al. (1881:391, 397); City Directory (1873-74:60); Morrison (1885:103); Fuller (1873); Sanborn (1912, 1912/23); Rascher (1892, 1892/1906); NW Miller (10/15/82); Szondy and Clouse (1990).

    WM-11. Holly Mill, 526 S. 1st St. (1867-ca.1919)

In 1867 the city built a small, one-story building on the east side of the canal for use as the first municipal waterworks. Two rotary Holly pumps were installed, but they soon proved to be insufficient and the waterworks moved to the first Bassett Sawmill across the canal in 1871.

Cahill, Loring, Fletcher, and Hineline converted the building into a flour mill in 1872 adding three limestone stories. It was the smallest mill built on the canal and was named the Holly Mill after its original water pumps. A fifth wooden story was added in the late 1870s (Figure 22). A fire gutted the building in 1895, but it was repaired and used by the Pillsbury-Washburn Company as a warehouse. It was torn down about 1919.

The mill's foundations are well preserved and still visible north of Portland Avenue. Archaeological testing in 1989 examined the interior walls.

References: Atwater (1893:608); Hudson (1907:482); Warner et al. (1881:396, 524); Morrison (1885:104); Fuller (1873); Sanborn (1885); Kane (1966:124); NW Miller (10/15/82, 2/28/00); City Council Proceedings (6/17/67, 7/26/67, 7/29/67, 12/13/67, 4/14/68, 8/28/68, 12/31/72); Szondy and Clouse (1990).

    WM-12. Cataract Mill, 528-530 S. 1st St. (1859-1928)

Eastman, Gibson, and Company constructed the Cataract Mill in 1859. It was the first privately built flour mill on the west side of the river (Figure 22). The limestone used to build the Cataract Mill came from the 1st Street canal excavation. Originally three stories high, a fourth story was added in 1875. A five-story wooden elevator was added on the east side and a brick office added to the front in 1879.

D.R. Barber bought the mill in 1864 and Barber Milling ran it until 1923. The building was torn down in 1928, but the engraved limestone door lintels were saved and incorporated into the foundations. The writing on the lintels has since exfoliated and is no longer legible. A mill stone was set on the lintels by the Eastman family in the mid-1960s to commemorate the site.

The foundations are well preserved and are still visible just north of Portland Avenue. Archaeological excavations in 1989 examined the interior wall of the building.

References: Fuller (1873); Atwater (1893:578-579, 581-583); Warner et al. (1881:391, 395-396); Hudson (1907:327-328,379); City Directory (1873-1874:47); Morrison (1885:109); NW Miller (5/18/77, 10/25/78, 10/15/82, 12/12/23, 8/20/24); Minneapolis Journal (11/15/28); Szondy and Clouse (1990).

    WM-13. Minneapolis Eastern Engine House, 108 4th Ave. S. (ca.1880-1914)

The Minneapolis Eastern Railroad Company was incorporated in 1878 sponsored by the Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul Railroad and the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis, and Omaha Railroad. The line was built to facilitate switching in the mill district to give the flour mills better access to a number of railroads. The company built a one-story, brick engine house at the north end of the mill district in the early 1880s. The building was replaced by a new structure (the former 1st Street Station Restaurant) just east on 1st St. in 1914.

The area is currently a parking lot. Foundation remnants of the old engine house probably remain below the surface.

References: SAFR (1980:45); Atwater (1893:329); Warner et al. (1881:430).

    WM-14. Pray Manufacturing, 401-425 S. 1st St., 101-111 4th Ave. S., 100-112 5th Ave. S. (1878-1914)

In 1878, O.A. Pray, a long-time Minneapolis millwright, built the Minneapolis Iron Works. It was soon known as Pray Manufacturing. The plant took up one-half a city block with a two-story stone foundry surrounded by one and two-story brick workshops. Major additions were made in 1879 and 1881.

The plant was an important producer of flour and sawmilling equipment until late 1886 when Pray filed for bankrupcy. Various occupants utilized portions of the old Pray plant over the next quarter century, although much of it was often vacant. The building was torn down in 1914 for the expanding yards of the Minneapolis Eastern Railroad.

The site was largely destroyed by the construction of the Riverwest Apartments in 1988. Unofficial construction monitoring documented foundational remains especially in the southeast corner of the complex.

References: Warner et al. (1881:376,406); Atwater (1893:646-647,664); Shutter (1923:379-380); City Directory (1873-74:48); Morrison (1885:80); Sanborn (1885, 1885/90, 1912); Rascher (1892, 1892/1906); NW Miller (2/9/77, 6/8/77, 10/4/78, 10/31/79, 4/1/81, 12/2/81, 12/24/86, 4/21/90); Frame (nd); SAFR (1980:45).

    WM-15. Minneapolis and St. Louis Railroad Depot, 402 S. 2nd St. (1871-1878)

A small depot was built at the corner of 4th Avenue S. and 2nd Street in 1871 by the Minneapolis and Duluth Railroad. The Minneapolis and Duluth Railroad was operated under lease by the Minneapolis and St. Louis Railroad and the depot mainly served the latter's trains. It was probably built of wood and was a one-story structure with a peaked roof. It was torn down in 1878 after a new depot was built in north Minneapolis at 4th Avenue N. and 3rd Street.

Some foundations may remain under the partking lot that currently occupies the site.

References: Andreas (1874).

    WM-16. Falls Hotel, 416 S. 2nd St. (1869-1909)

The Falls Hotel was built in 1869 on 2nd Street S. between 4th and 5th Avenues. It was a small, three-story wooden structure. It closed in 1909 and was torn down within the next year.

Some foundations may survive below the parking lot now occupying the site.

References: City Directories (1869-1909); Cook (1872); Sanborn (1885).

    WM-17. City Hotel, 418 S. 2nd St. (ca.1872-1903)

The City Hotel was built in 1870 on S. 2nd Street adjacent to the Falls Hotel. It was a narrow, two-story wooden structure. It closed in 1889 and was torn down in 1903.

Some foundations may remain under the parking lot that currently occupies the site.

References: City Directories (1871-1903); NW Miller (9/9/03); Sanborn (1885).

    WM-18. Variety Iron Works/Eagle Iron Works, 120-128 5th Ave. S, 420 S. 2nd St. (1880 - ca.1920)

In the early 1870s, the Monitor Plow Works had a shop at the corner of 2nd Street and 5th Avenue S. Monitor Plow moved out of the mill district in 1875. In 1880 Hashow, Marsh, and Davis built the Variety Iron Works at 420 S. 2nd Street and G.M. Bryant built the Eagle Iron Works at 120 5th Avenue S. The buildings were of brick with Variety Iron being two stories and Eagle Iron one story. Eagle Iron Works took over both buildings in 1890 and tore down the one story foundry in 1904. Eagle Iron moved out of the remaining building in 1912. The two-story building was torn down about 1920.

Foundations may remain beneath the parking lot that now occupies the site.

References: Warner et al. (1881:411); City Directories (1880-1913); Sanborn (1912/25).

    WM-19. Minnesota Iron Works, 501-507 S. 1st St., 101-109 5th Ave. S. (1865-1879)

In 1865 W.H. Lee and C.M. Hardenburg built the Minnesota Iron Works where the Crown Roller Mill stands today at the intersection of 1st Street South and 5th Avenues South. Hardenburg took control of the firm in 1870, although O.A. Pray leased most of the complex and became a part owner.

The iron works consisted of a main building fronting on 1st Street which was built of stone (100 x 40 feet, three stories high), a stone foundry (60 x 30 feet, 1-1/2 stories high), and several frame buildings. A drawing of the complex appears in the 1871-1872 City Directory. The Minnesota Iron Works made engines, sawmills, flour mills, turbines, gears, boilers, and other items, including the "Waters" pumps for the city water works. The plant was torn down in 1879 for the construction of the Crown Roller Mill.

When the Crown Mill interior was recently rebuilt remnants of the Minnesota Iron Works were not immediately apparent, although the original turbine shafts may have been utilized by the Crown.

References: Fuller (1873); City Directory (1871-1872, 1873-1874:58); Atwater (1893:646); Warner et al. (1881:406); Minneapolis Tribune (11/27/78); NW Miller (4/25/79).

    WM-20. Minneapolis Boiler Works, 123-127 5th Ave. S. (ca. 1878 - 1985)

In 1878 M.W. Glenn built the Minneapolis Boiler Works on 5th Avenue S. just east of 2nd Street. It was a one-story brick building. Glenn sold out in 1887 and the boiler works continued to operate into the early 1890s under other owners. Over the next half century, various machine shops occupied the building until it was taken over by Northwestern Consolidated Milling for storage. It had been vacant for a number of years when it was torn down in late 1985.

Any foundation remnants were probably destroyed by the recent Block 10 development.

References: SAFR (1980:48-49); Warner et al. (1881:407-408); Atwater (1893:647).

    WM-21. Phoenix Iron Works, 129 5th Ave. S. (ca.1881-1985)

In the early 1880s, D. Douglas and J.M. Schultz built the Phoenix Iron Works on the site of an earlier boiler works run by C.M. Hardenberg. The Phoenix building was a two-story brick structure at the corner of 2nd Street and 5th Avenue.

Phoenix Iron moved to St. Cloud in 1887 and Wilford and Northway manufacturing took over the building. Various firms occupied the building in the early twentieth century until it was taken over for storage by Northwestern Consolidated Milling.

It was torn down in late 1985 for the Block 10 development. Any foundational remains were probably destroyed by the construction of the Whitney Hotel lobby.

References: City Directories (1871 - 1887); Sanborn (1885, 1912, 1912/51); Rascher (1892).

    WM-22. Model Mill, 525-527 S. 1st St. (1863-1967)

In 1863 R.P. Russell and George Hay built a stone, two-story planing mill on the west side of the water power canal. In 1878 the building was converted into a flour mill named the Model Mill. Three brick stories were added to the building. When the building burned in 1883, the brick walls were torn down and a single story above the stone walls rebuilt.

Wilford and Northway Manufacturing took over the building in 1885 and built flour milling and other types of machinery there until 1892. The building burned in 1894 and was once again rebuilt utilizing the original lower stone walls. It was used for storage by various milling companies, eventually consolidated with the adjacent Dakota Mill in the early 1920s to be known as the King Midas Mill. The King Midas Mill burned in 1967.

Foundation remnants were exposed in 1987 during construction for the Whitney Hotel plaza. Some foundations probably still survive.

References: Fuller (1873); Minnesota Business Directory (1865:102); Atwater (1893:620,639-640, 661-663); Sanborn (1885, 1886/90, 1912, 1912/27, 1912/48); Rascher (1892, 1892/06); Warner et al. (1881:396, 623, 625); NW Miller (10/15/82, 4/20/83, 4/27/83, 6/29/83, 10/26/84, 8/12/87, 5/18/88, 3/4/92, 7/22/92, 1/19/94, 10/16/94, 6/30/20); Mpls. Tribune (8/3/67).

    WM-23. Dakota Mill, 529-531 S. 1st St. (1868-1967)

In 1868 R.P. Russell and Company built a two-story frame flour mill on the west side of the water power canal. It was the only wooden-walled flour mill in the West Side Mill District. In 1869 a small machine shop was added on the west side of the building for the North Star Grain Fan Works. The mill was originally known as the Russell Mill, but the name was changed to the Dakota Mill in 1873.

A tin-clad elevator replaced the machine shop in the 1890s. In 1892 an additional story was added to the Dakota Mill and the entire building sheathed in corrugated iron. The name was changed to the King Midas Mill in 1923. The building was abandoned in 1961 and burned in 1967.

Foundation walls may remain below the current Whitney Hotel plaza.

References: Fuller (1873); Warner et al. (1881:396, 524, 625); Atwater (1893:590-591); Morrison (1885:99); City Directory (1873/74:49); NW Miller (10/15/82, 7/22/92, 6/30/20); Mpls. Tribune (8/3/67)

    WM-24. Minneapolis Eastern Railroad Trestle, Along the river from just north of 6th Ave. S. to 8th Ave. S. (1879-1962)

In 1878 J.B. Bassett incorporated the Minneapolis Eastern Railroad with the sponsorship of the Chicago, Milwaukee, & St. Paul Railroad and the Chicago, Milwaukee & Minneapolis Railroad. After a bitter legal battle with the Minneapolis Mill Company, the Minneapolis Eastern built a trestle just behind the 1st Street flour mills along the river. It ran from the Palisade Mill at the south end of 1st Street to the head of the canal (Figure 23). The tracks then spanned the canal mouth on a bridge shared with the St. Paul, Minneapolis and Manitoba Railroad. The tracks then continued north along the river.

The trestle allowed the eastern row of canal mills to have direct railroad access on the river side. The trestle was rebuilt in 1890. The southern half was torn down in 1941 and the northern half in 1962.

Two stone pedestals remain in place on the south side of Portland (6th) Avenue just west of the Stone Arch Bridge. Archaeological testing in 1989 found an additional pedestal base south of Portland Avenue.

References: Kane (1987:90-91); Proesser (1966:144); NW Miller (2/14/90, 6/20/90); Szondy and Clouse (1990).

    WM-25. Clapp Woolen Mill/Empire Mill-Pillsbury B Elevator, 600-604 S. 1st St.(1865-1881; 1888-1969)

In 1865 Clapp and Company erected a four-story stone woolen mill on the east side of the waterpower canal. In 1872 C.A. Pillsbury and Company bought the building and converted it into a flour mill called the Empire Mill. The mill burned along with three adjacent mills in 1881.

The site was vacant until 1888 when the Pillsbury Company built their B elevator there, probably utilizing some of the Empire Mill foundations. The brick elevator was connected to the Pillsbury B Mill by two long spouts that ran over the intervening Minneapolis Mill. In 1929 the King Midas Division of the Peavey Company bought the elevator and it became known as the King Midas Elevator. It was abandoned in 1962 and burned in 1969. Foundation walls are visible at the east end of the site.

In 1989, the MHS carried out an extensive archaeological investigation at the site. Most of the foundational remains were associated with the elevator, but some early walls were also documented. The site will be exposed as part of Mill Ruins Park.

References: Fuller (1873); Bromley (1890:118-119); Atwater (1893: 613,657); Warner et al. (1881:394); NW Miller 7/12/78); Szondy and Clouse (1990).

    WM-26. Minneapolis Mill, 606-610 S. 1st St. (1865-1931)

In 1865 Frazee, Murphy and Company built the Minneapolis Mill on the east side of the waterpower canal. The walls were made of limestone and it was four stories high. The mill burned in 1871, but was immediately rebuilt. It burned again in 1881 along with several adjacent mills. It was rebuilt again, but this time a fifth story was added. It became the D Mill of the Washburn-Crosby Company in 1893. It was torn down in 1931.

The foundations were covered in the mid-1960s by the J.L. Shiely Company gravel yards. The gravel has recently been removed exposing the top of the front wall of the building. The site will be more fully exposed as part of Mill Ruins Park.

References: Atwater (1893:584,586); Warner et al. (1881:396); Shutter (1923:354); NW Miller (10/5/82, 10/15/82, 2/14/90, 6/20/90), Fuller (1873); Sanborn (1885); Rascher (1892).

    WM-27. Alaska/Pillsbury B Mill, 612-616 S. 1st St. (1866-1931)

In 1866 Taylor Brothers built a stone flour mill five stories high on the east side of the waterpower canal and named it the Alaska Mill. In 1870 Gardner and Pillsbury bought the mill. By 1874 C.A. Pillsbury owned it. The mill was known as the Pillsbury Mill until 1881 when it burned. The same year the Pillsbury A Mill on the east side of the river was completed, so when the west side mill was rebuilt in 1882, it was designated the Pillsbury B Mill (Figure 24). The mill was torn down in 1931.

The foundations were covered in the mid-1960s by the J.L. Shiely Company gravel storage yards. The gravel was recently removed exposing the top of the front wall of the building. The site will be more fully exposed as part of Mill Ruins Park.

References: Atwater (1893:587); Warner et al. (1881:394); Hudson (1907:332); City Directory (1873-74:53); Morrison (1885:53-54); Fuller (1873); Sanborn (1885); NW Miller (10/4/81, 12/19/84, 7/24/85, 2/19/86, 12/3/31); Mpls. Journal (12/1/31); Mpls. Times (12/1/31); Rascher (1892).

    WM-28. Minneapolis Cotton Mill/Excelsior Mill, 618-620 S. 1st St. (1870-1961)

Dorillus Morrison built the Minneapolis Cotton Mill in 1870 on the east side of the canal. The building was a two-story stone structure with a brick front. Seamless bags, carpet warps, and cotton bats were manufactured there. The cotton mill closed in the mid-1870s and the building was converted into a four-story flour mill called the Excelsior Mill. It burned in 1881.

It was immediately rebuilt into a six-story flour mill. It became the G Mill of the Minneapolis Flour Manufacturing Company in the mid-1890s. The flour milling equipment was removed about ten years later. The waterpower turbines were used to generate electricity from 1932 to 1960 as Unit 2 of NSP's Consolidated Hydro Plant. The building was torn down in 1961.

The foundations were covered in the mid-1960s by the J.L. Shiely Company gravel storage yards. The gravel was recently removed exposing the top of the front wall of the building. The site will be more fully exposed as part of Mill Ruins Park.

References: Fuller (1873); Atwater (1893:618); Warner et al. (1881:394,415); City Directory (1873-74:40-41); NW Miller (1/12/77, 7/12/89); Mississippi Valley Lumberman (1/5/77); Sanborn (1885); Rascher (1892/06).

    WM-29. Minneapolis Paper Mill, 622-626 S. 1st St. (1867-1931)

In 1866, L.W. Montgomery began building the Minneapolis Paper Mill and the building was finished in 1867 by Warner, Brewster, and Company. It was two stories high with a brick front and stone sides. The mill manufactured book and printing paper. One of the old mill stones of the Government Grist Mill, a former occupant of the site, was incorporated into the front foundation wall of the paper mill at about street level.

After changing ownership several times, the mill became the property of the Hennepin Paper Company in 1889. In the early 1890's, the building became the property of the Pillsbury-Washburn Company which tore down the walls of the building and built a five-story warehouse, re-using the original paper mill foundations. In 1924 it was called the Pillsbury C Warehouse. When it was torn down in 1931, it had been vacant for several years. The waterpower turbines were used to generate electricity from 1932 to 1960 as Unit 7 of the Consolidated Hydro Plant.

The foundations were covered in the mid-1960s by the J.L. Shiely Company gravel storage yards. The gravel was recently removed exposing the top of the front wall of the building. The site will be more fully exposed as part of Mill Ruins Park.

References: Atwater (1892:657-658); Hudson (1907:386); Shutter (1923:385); City Directory (1873-74:51); Bromley (1890:2); Warner et al. (1881:414); Sanborn (1885); Rascher (1892/1905); Fuller (1873); Minneapolils Journal (12/1/31).

    WM-30. Government Grist Mill, 626 S. 1st St. (1823-1866)

A small stone grist mill was built by the troops from Fort Snelling on the west side of St. Anthony Falls in 1823. The mill ran intermittently until 1849 when Robert Smith leased the mill from the government establishing the first non-military foothold on the west side. Smith ran the mill until 1855, buying it in 1853. Leonard Day bought the mill in 1855, but abandoned it in 1857. The mill was torn down for the construction of the Minneapolis Paper Mill in 1866. The remainder of the site was destroyed by the construction of the Northwestern Flour Mill in 1879.

References: Talcott (1857); Minneapolis Journal (10/14/23); Bromley (1890:2-3,48-49,84-85,118-119; 1905); Kane (1987:9,30,38); Atwater (1893:33,535-536,585-586,625); Warner et al. (1881:372,377,389,391); Hudson (1907:386); Shutter (1923:72-73,335,386); Stevens (1890:81, 203); NW Miller (5/9/79, 5/30/79); Mississippi Valley Lumberman (2/1/95).

    WM-31. Government Sawmill/City Flour Mill, 630 S. 1st Street (1821-1879)

In 1821 government troops built a frame sawmill on the west side of St. Anthony Falls to cut lumber for the construction of Fort Snelling. Soon after the completion of the fort, the sawmill was abandoned. In 1849 Robert Smith leased the site from the government and in 1850 he refitted the sawmill as a grist mill. Perkins and Crocker bought the mill in 1862 and renamed it the City Flour Mill. It burned in 1879 and the site was destroyed by the construction of the Northwestern Flour Mill the same year.

References: Talcott (1857); Fuller (1873); Minneapolis Journal (10/14/23); Bromley (1890:2-3,48-49,84-85,118-119; 1905); Kane (1987:9,30,37); Atwater (1893:33,535-536,585-586,625); Warner et al. (1881:372,377,389,391); Hudson (1907:386); Shutter (1923:72-73,335,386); Stevens (1890:81, 203); City Directory (1873/74:61); NW Miller (5/9/79, 5/30/79); Mississippi Valley Lumberman (2/1/95).

    WM-32. Northwestern Mill, 628-632 S. 1st St. (1879-1931)

In 1879 Siddle, Fletcher and Holmes built the Northwestern Mill on the east side of the waterpower canal at the site of the government mills. It was of stone and five stories high. Its Victorian Gothic pediment made it easily distinguishable from its relatively plain-fronted neighbors on the canal. In 1891 it became the D mill of Northwestern Consolidated Milling. The mill ceased operating in 1926 and was torn down in 1931.

The foundations were covered in the mid-1960s by the J.L. Shiely Company gravel storage yards. The gravel was recently removed exposing the top of the front wall of the building. The site will be more fully exposed as part of Mill Ruins Park.

References: Atwater (1893:625,630); Warner et al. (1881:397); Morrison (1885:101-102); NW Miller (5/9/79, 5/30/79, 10/15/82); Minneapolis Tribune (3/29/31).

    WM-33. Pettit Mill/Northwestern Consolidated Elevator B, 700-706 S. 1st St. (1875-1931)

Built in 1875 by Pettit, Robinson, and Company, the Pettit Mill was a stone structure, four stories high, located on the east side of the water power canal. It was destroyed by a fire caused by the Washburn A Mill explosion in 1878. It was immediately rebuilt one story taller than the original structure.

The Pettit Mill was converted into an elevator by Northwestern Consolidated Milling in 1891 and a two-story brick addition placed on the top. It was renamed Northwestern Consolidated Elevator B. The building was torn down in 1931.

The foundations were covered in the mid-1960s by the J.L. Shiely Company gravel storage yards. The gravel has recently been removed exposing the top of the front wall of the building. The site will be more fully exposed as part of Mill Ruins Park.

References: Stone (1878:110); Atwater (1893:619,630); Warner et al. (1881:397); Hudson (1970:313-314); Morrison (1885:69); Sanborn (1885, 1885/90); Rascher (1892); NW Miller (10/15/82, 1/25/84, 8/22/84, 4/24/91, 7/24/91, 11/27/91).

    WM-34. Zenith Mill, 708-710 S. 1st St. (1871-1931)

The Zenith Mill was built in 1871 by Leonard Day and M.B. Rollins. It was on the east side of the water power canal, three stories high and built of stone. It had a gabled roof unique to the Mill District. In 1873 it introduced the first roller milling system in Minneapolis. The Zenith Mill was gutted by a fire caused by the Washburn A Mill explosion in 1878.

The mill was immediately rebuilt one story higher than the original mill and without the gabled roof. It became the Northwestern Consolidated Milling E Mill in 1891. A two-story addition was put on top of the building. The mill ceased production in 1922 and was torn down in 1931. From 1932-1960 the turbines were used to generate electricity as Unit 5 of the Consolidated Hydro Plant.

The foundations were covered in the mid-1960s by the J.L. Shiely Company gravel storage yards. The gravel was recently been exposing the top of the front wall of the building. The site will be more fully exposed as part of Mill Ruins Park.

References: Stone (1878:110); Atwater (1893:591); Warner et al. (1881:397); Fuller (1873); City Directory (1873-74:58); Morrison (1885:101-102); NW Miller (10/15/82, 2/13/91, 3/13/91, 4/24/91); Sanborn (1885); Rascher (1892); Minneapolis Tribune (3/29/31).

    WM-35. Galaxy Mill, 712-716 S. 1st St. (1874-1931)

W.P. Ankeny built the Galaxy Mill in 1874 on the east side of water power canal. It burned the following year and was rebuilt. The mill was of stone and five stories high. The mill was again destroyed by fire caused by the Washburn A Mill explosion in 1878, but was rebuilt in 1879. The new building was six stories high. The top story had a tin-clad mansard roof.

The Galaxy became Northwestern Consolidated Milling's C mill in 1891. It quit production in 1922 and was torn down in 1931. The turbines were used to generate electricity from 1932-1960 as Unit 6 of NSP's Consolidated Hydro Plant.

The foundations were covered in the mid-1960s by the J.L. Shiely Company gravel storage yards. The gravel was recently removed exposing the top of the front wall of the building. The site will be more fully exposed as part of Mill Ruins Park.

References: Stone (1878:110); Atwater (1893:613-614); Warner et al. (1881:396,524); Morrison (1885:55); Mississippi Valley Lumberman (2/9/77); NW Miller (9/12/79, 6/23/82, 10/15/82, 11/4/87, 12/23/87, 4/14/91); Sanborn (1885, 1885/90); Minneapolis Tribune (3/29/31).

    WM-36. Minneapolis and St. Louis/Minneapolis Western Railroad Trestle and Wheelhouse, Along 1st Street from 6th Avenue S. to 8th Avenue S., Wheelhouse at 722 S. 1st Street (1878-1936/1960)

In 1878 the Minneapolis and St. Louis Railroad built a wooden trestle over the 1st Street waterpower canal to give the flour mills direct access to rail transportation. Locomotives were too heavy for the trestle and went only as far as an earth birm ending between 7th and 8th Avenues S. The train cars were then pulled down the trestle by a cable powered by a water-driven turbine located in a wheelhouse 50 feet south of the Galaxy Mill.

The Minneapolis Western Railroad took over the trestle in 1884, and in 1885 the trestle was rebuilt with iron girders. The great Northern Railroad took control of the trestle in 1928 and it was torn down in 1936. The wheel house remained until 1960.

The site was covered in the mid-1960s by the J.L. Shiely Company gravel storage yards. The turbine shafts probably still remain. The site may be exposed as part of Mill Ruins Park.

References: Greenleaf (1887:53); Sanborn (1885, 1885/90, 1912/48).

    WM-37. Anchor Mill, 606-608 S. 2nd St. (1874-1937)

In 1874 W.W. Eastman, Paris Gibson, and G.H. Eastman built the Anchor Mill on 2nd Street, a block off the water powercanal. It was powered by a line shaft from a turbine under the North Star Woolen Mill. The mill was built of limestone and six stories high. It burned in late 1878 and was rebuilt in 1879. It ceased production in 1928 and became a warehouse. It was torn down in 1937 and a wool warehouse was built on the site. Some of the foundations may remain.

References: Sanborn (1885); Warner et al. (1881:394); Atwater (1893:579, 603, 608); NW Miller (1/7/76, 12/13/78, 6/23/82, 10/15/82); Minneapolis Star (12/25/37).

    WM-38. Washburn C Mill Complex, 614-620 S. 2nd St.; 615-629 S. 1st St. (1878-1960)

Washburn, Crosby, and Company built their C Mill immediately north of their damaged B Mill after the first Washburn A Mill exploded in 1878. The Washburn C Mill was six stories high and built of stone. It initially served as an experimental mill to test new milling processes. A 60,000 bushel elevator and a machine shop were built just east of the C mill fronting on 1st Street. In 1885 a brick boiler house was also built on 1st Street just south of the elevator (Figure 25). The entire C mill complex was torn down in 1960.

Foundations no doubt remain beneath the parking lot that currently occupies the site.

References: Warner et al. (1881:395); Atwater (1893:610); Morrison (1885:44); Sanborn (1885); Rascher (1892); NW Miller (5/10/78, 10/15/82, 9/5/84, 11/27/85, 3/3/93); Frame (1977:55-56).

    WM-39. Washburn B Mill, 622-626 S. 2nd St. (1866-1931)

When it was built in 1866, the Washburn B Mill was the largest flour mill west of Buffalo, New York. The stone building was 66 feet x 100 feet and four stories high. While it fronted on 2nd Street, a long head race from the 1st Street canal brought water power to its turbines.

G.H. Christian became a partner of C.C. Washburn in 1868 and helped develop the middlings purifier which was first introduced in the B mill in 1871. With the construction of the larger Washburn A Mill in 1874, the original Washburn Mill was designated the B Mill. The B mill was severely damaged by the Washburn A Mill explosion in 1878, but was back in operation in 1879. The Washburn B Mill was torn down in 1931.

Foundations no doubt remain beneath the parking lot that now occupies the site.

References: Atwater (1893:587-588,607,610, 612); Warner et al. (1881:395); Shutter (1923:354); Morrison (1885:43-44); Sanborn (1885, 1885/90); Rascher (1892); Fuller (1873); NW Miller (1/24/79, 3/25/81, 10/15/82).

    WM-40. 1st Washburn A Mill, 703-709 S. 1st St. (1874-1878)

C.C. Washburn built the first Washburn A Mill in 1873-1874 on the west side of the canal near its terminus. The limestone building was six and a half stories high. Its water-powered turbines, located 45 feet below street level, ran 41 milling stones, making it one of the largest flour mills in the world. A 100 foot high frame elevator was built just southeast of the mill.

On May 2, 1878 the mill exploded killing 14 workers and destroying itself and five adjacent mills (Figure 26). A new Washburn A mill was built on the site in 1879-1880 which was twice the size of the first mill. Portions of the lower foundations of the first Washburn A Mill may be incorporated into the existing A mill.

References: Atwater (1893:639); Fuller (1873); Stone (1878).

    WM-41. Guilder Machine Shop, 706 S. 2nd St. (1874-1878)

In 1874 A.R. Guilder, a Minneapolis millwright, built a two-story, frame machine shop west of the 1st Washburn A Mill and set back from 2nd Street. Guilder manufactured a middling purifier of his own design and other flour milling equipment. The machine shop was destroyed by the Washburn A Mill explosion in 1878 and the site was taken over by the enlarged 2nd Washburn A Mill which still covers the site today. It is unlikely any foundations of the machine shop survive.

References: Warner et al. (1881:555); Atwater (1893:621); Stone (1878:Map); NW Miller (5/10/78).

    WM-42. Diamond Mill, 708 S. 2nd St. (1874-1878)

N.R. Thompson and Charles Hoyt built the Diamond Mill in 1874 on 2nd Street S., south of the Washburn A Mill. It was of stone, four stories high and was waterpowered. The Diamond Mill was destroyed by the Washburn A Mill explosion in 1878 and was not rebuilt. The foundation remnants were removed in 1881 with construction of the Washburn A Mill Wheat House which still occupies the site.

References: Stone (1878:109); Warner et al. (1881:395); Atwater (1893:613,619,622); Shutter (1923:366-367); NW Miller (5/10/78); SAFR (1980:56).

    WM-43. Butler Machine Shop, 710 S. 2nd St. (1867-1878)

H.C. Butler built an iron working shop on 2nd Street S. in 1867 after several previous shops had been destroyed by fire. Butler had been making mill picks and other iron work in Minneapolis since 1857. His new shop was one and one-half stories high and built of stone. It was destroyed by the Washburn A Mill explosion in 1878. Butler rebuilt a block north on 6th Avenue. The site of the destroyed shop was taken over by an expanded Humboldt Mill in 1879. The Humboldt Mill still occupies the site. It is unlikely any foundations of the machine shop survive.

References: Warner et al. (1881:408,523); Atwater (1893:621, 643-644); Shutter (1923:365, 367); NW Miller (5/10/78); Stone (1878:Map).

    WM-44. Washburn Power Building/North Star Feed Mill, 710-714 S. 2nd St. (1873-1878/ca.1885-1931)

In 1873 C.C. Washburn built a two-story, stone building on 2nd Street S., south of the Humboldt Mill. It was water powered with a planing mill on the first floor and a box factory on the second floor. The building was destroyed by the Washburn A Mill explosion in 1878.

The site was vacant until the early 1880s when Washburn, Crosby, and Company built a four-story stone building for storage and a woodworking shop. In 1891 the building was converted into a feed and cereal mill called the North Star. In 1916 it was made into a rye mill, but reverted to a feed mill in 1923. All of the building but the rear wall was torn down in 1931. A small cement block warehouse was built on part of the site in the early 1970s. The rear wall, a granite paver driveway, andome foundations still remain.

References: Atwater (1893:639); Fuller (1873); Stone (1878); Sanborn (1885); Edgar (1925:310); Rascher (1892); Shutter (1923:362); NW Miller (8/14/91, 12/4/91, 12/18/91, 1/5/16).

    WM-45. Palisade Mill, 101 8th Ave. S. (1872-1940)

Built by Leonard Day and Company in 1872, the Palisade Mill was the southernmost water-powered mill on the west side. The original Palisade Mill was four stories high and built of stone. The building was doubled in size in 1882 when two more stories were added and an addition put on the east side. A one-story boiler room and a brick engine room were added in 1884 and 1888.

When the mill was dismantled in 1932, it belonged to Pillsbury. The top four stories were removed and the engine room and boiler house leveled. The remaining portion burned in late 1940.

The foundations were covered in the mid-1960s by the J.L. Shiely Company gravel storage yards. Archaeological testing in 1985 located the western corner of the building 3.6 feet below the surface. The site may be exposed as part of Mill Ruins Park.

References: Fuller (1873); Sanborn (1885, 1885/90); Rascher (1892); Atwater (1893:603); Warner et al. (1881:397,654); Morrison (1885:47-48); NW Miller 10/13/82, 10/15/82, 12/29/82, 9/14/83, 12/28/32, 12/11/40); Minneapolis Journal (4/31/24); Tordoff (1986).

    WM-46. Minneapolis and St. Louis Auxiliary Depot, 100 10th Ave. S. (ca. 1890 - ca. 1910)

In about 1890 the Minneapolis & St. Louis Railroad built a small passenger depot just south of the mill district. It supplemented their main depot in North Minneapolis. It was a small, one-story brick building surrounded by a wooden platform. It was torn down about 1910. Foundation remnants may exist below the abandoned railroad grade.

References: Sanborn (1885/90); Smith (1891).

    WM-47. Dorsey's Bran Packing House, Just north of the foot of 10th Ave. S. (ca.1874-1891)

One of the major support industries of the flour mills in Minneapolis was coopering. Thousands of barrels were needed for packing flour and milling by-products such as bran. One center of coopers' shops was located at the west end of the 10th Avenue South bridge, just south of the mill district.

The Hall and Dann Barrel Company originally located here in the mid-1870s just north of the bridge. In the early 1880s, Hall and Dann moved to their new plant at 1st Street and 3rd Avenue (now Mill Place). One of the old buildings burned in 1881. The Dorsey Bran Packing Company took over the remaining old facility and made barrels there in the mid-1880s.

The factory was steam-powered occupying an L-shaped building. The base of the L was a two story structure, 40 feet x 80 feet with a stone first story and a frame second story. The rest of the building was a one story, frame warehouse 100 feet x 25 feet. A similar warehouse was situated on the inside of the L. The upright leg of the L was gone by 1890. The other buildings were torn down in October of 1891 to make room for the Minneapolis Western Railroad yards.

References: Andreas (1874); Ruger (1879); Sanborn (1885, 1885/90); Atwater (1893:632-633); City Directory (1884-85); NW Miller (11/18/81, 10/16/91).

    WM-48. Washburn Barrel Factory, Just south of foot of 10th Ave. S. (ca.1875-1891)

This building complex was probably built in the mid-1870s by the Washburn Mill Company to house their cooper shops. By the mid-1880s the buildings were being used as warehouses. The complex consisted of two, one story frame buildings arranged in an L shape. The upper leg building was 140 feet x 90 feet and the lower leg building was 120 feet x 50 feet. Lumber piles were stacked nearby. The buildings were torn down in 1891 for the Minneapolis Western Railroad yards. Foundation remants may still exist below abandoned railroad grade.

References: Sanborn (1885, 1885/90); NW Miller (10/16/91); Andreas (1874); Ruger (1879).

    WM-49. Minneapolis Transfer Railroad Roundhouse, 101 10th Ave. S. (ca. 1885-1890)

In the early 1880s, the Minneapolis Transfer Railroad built a roundhouse near the foot of 10th Avenue S. It was a one-story, brick structure with five bays and a turntable on the east. It was torn down by 1890. Foundation remnants may exist below abandoned railroad grade.

References: Sanborn (1885, 1885/90).

    WM-50. Minneapolis Western Railroad Yards (1891- ca. 1900)

The Minneapolis Western Railroad was incorporated in 1884 to serve the west side flour mills. It acquired the trestle over the canal along 1st Street that had originally been constructed by the Minneapolis & St. Louis Railroad in 1878. In 1885 it rebuilt the canal trestle and in 1887 built a bridge across the Mississippi River with its western terminus at the foot of 11th Avenue South.

In 1891 the Minneapolis Western began building yards along the river just south of the mill district. At the north end of the yards, just south of the Palisade Mill, a small (20 foot x 20 foot), one story brick office was constructed. It was torn down about ten years later. Foundations of the office building may remain.

References: Sanborn (1885, 1885/90); Rascher (1892); City Atlas (1903).

    WM-51. William Garland Residence (1856 - ca. 1870)

William Garland arrived in Minneapolis in 1853. In 1856 he built a good sized house on the river bluff just north of the foot of 11th Avenue South. The Talcott Map (1857) shows an I-shaped house with the middle section about 90 feet long and the ends about 50 feet long. All of the sections were about 20 feet wide. Garland was elected to the first City Council in 1858. The house appears on the 1867 Ruger panorama, but not on the 1874 Andreas panorama. Apparently, it was purchased by C.C. Washburn about 1870, moved to 6th Street and 9th Avenue S. and given to the College Hospital.

Foundation remnants or an artifact scatter may exist in the Minnegasco complex that currently occupies the site.

References: Atwater (1893:39,41,45); Stevens (1890:284); Talcott (1857); Ruger (1867).

    WM-52. Platform Sawmills (1858-1887)

With the completion of the main channel dam in 1857, a wooden platform was erected immediately behind the dam and straddling the Falls. In 1858 the Pioneer Sawmill was built on the northeast end of the platform and the same year the Champion Sawmill was built adjoining the Pioneer on the west. In the early 1860s, four more sawmills were built along the front edge of the platform and two planing mills at the back edge. In 1877 the Minneapolis Cotton Mill moved into the Morrison Planing Mill at the rear of the platform.

The wood foundation of the platform was replaced with stone in 1881. A few of the platform sawmills were torn down in the early 1880s and the last one was torn down in 1887. In 1900 the Pillsbury-Washburn Company built a small, electric power plant at the location of the platform. The entire site was largely destroyed by the construction of the Upper Lock and Dam in 1959. A small portion of the original masonry dam may survive at the northwestern edge of the site.

References: Fuller (1873); Warner et al. (1881:402-403); Atwater (1893:539-544); Stone (1878:50); Shutter (1928:331-355); Kane (1983); NW Miller (2/18/81, 3/4/87); Mississippi Valley Lumberman (1/5/77).

    WM-53. Minneapolis Brush Electric Hydro Plant (1882-ca. 1895)

In 1882 the Minnesota Brush Electric Company leased a site on Upton Island behind the Minneapolis Mills Company's platform and built a small, wooden building. Into it were placed five Brush arc-light generators which were turned by a line shaft connected to a water wheel. Wires were strung to several businesses on Washington Avenue. On September 5, 1882, the generators were activated and the plant became one of the first central hydropower generating facilities in the nation.

The seasonal irregularity of the water flow inhibited year-round generation of electricity so in late 1884 the generators were moved to the steam-driven West Side Power Plant north of the Hennepin Avenue bridge. The building stood for about ten more years, being torn down in the mid-1890s. The site was completely destroyed by the construction of the Upper Lock and Dam in 1959. A plaque and turbine exhibit near the Lock and Dam Visitor Center commemorate the site.

References: Kane (1987:134-145); Sanborn (1885); Rascher (1892-1906).


 
Vol. 48, No. 1-2  © 1989 The Minnesota Archaeological Society

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